Medical Cannabis (Marijuana or Marihuana) Bibliography

Bibliography by Richard Bayer MD, FACP; Board Certified: American Board of Internal Medicine.


Handbook of Cannabis Therapeutics: From Bench to Bedside edited by Ethan Russo MD and Franjo Grotenhermen MD (Haworth Press 2006) 1-800-HAWORTH.

Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential edited by Franjo Grotenhermen MD and Ethan Russo MD (Haworth Press 2002).

The Oregon Medical Marijuana Guide: A Resource for Patients & Health Care Providers by Ed Glick RN (Contigo-Conmigo 2001). Online at

1999 National Academy of Sciences/ Institute of Medicine report: Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base edited by Janet Joy, Stanley Watson, Jr., and John Benson, Jr., Institute of Medicine. Online at

Is Marijuana the Right Medicine for You? A Factual Guide to Medical Uses of Marijuana by Bill Zimmerman PhD with Rick Bayer MD and Nancy Crumpacker MD (Keats 1998). Chapter 3: Why All the Controversy? What Does The Research Actually Show? Online at

A Primer on Drug Action: A Concise, Nontechnical Guide to the Actions, Uses, and Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs (Eighth Edition) by Robert M Julien MD PhD (Freeman 1998)

Marijuana Myths, Marijuana Facts: A Review of the Scientific Evidence by Lynn Zimmer PhD, and John Morgan MD (The Lindesmith Center 1997)

Marijuana Medical Handbook: A Guide to Therapeutic Use by Ed Rosenthal, Dale Gieringer PhD and Tod Mikuriya MD (Quick American Archives 1997) 1-800-428-7825 Ext. 102

Cannabis in Medical Practice: A Legal, Historical, and Pharmacological Overview of the Therapeutic Use of Marijuana edited by Mary Lynn Mathre RN (McFarland & Company, Inc. 1997)

Marihuana: The Forbidden Medicine by Lester Grinspoon MD and James Bakalar JD (Yale University Press 1997) 1-800-YUP-READ

Hemp for Health: The Medicinal and Nutritional Uses of Cannabis Sativa by Chris Conrad (Healing Arts Press 1997)

Marihuana Reconsidered by Lester Grinspoon MD (Harvard University Press 1971 and 1977 and Lester Grinspoon 1994 and Quick American Archives 1996) 1-800-428-7825 Ext. 102

Cancer Treatment & Marijuana Therapy edited by Robert Randall (Galen Press 1990)

Marijuana: Medical Papers 1839-1972 edited by Tod Mikuriya MD (Medi-Comp Press 1973) online at and

Why Our Drug Laws Have Failed and What We Can Do About It: A Judicial Indictment of the War on Drugs by Judge James P. Gray (Temple Press 2001)

Drug Crazy: How We Got Into This Mess and How We Can Get Out by Mike Gray (Random House 1998)

From Chocolate to Morphine: Everything You Need to Know about Mind-Altering Drugs by Andrew Weil MD and Jennifer Rosen (Houghton Mifflin 1983 and 1993)

Articles Online - abstracts or summaries are often online at the National Library of Medicine

International Association of Cannabis as Medicine (IACM) Database on Clinical Studies and Case Reports

O'Shaughnessy's Journal of the California Cannabis Research Medical Group (CCRMG)

Solvay Pharmaceuticals offers the only federally legal cannabinoid in the USA, synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a capsule called Marinolâ Important prescribing information about THC is at: Marinol versus Natural Cannabis: Pros, Cons, and Options for Patients by Paul Armentano 2005 is at

GW Pharmaceuticals developed Sativexâ, an herbal cannabis extract sprayed into the mouth. In 2005, it became available by prescription in Canada. At use the navigation bar on the left. The Research and Development link leads to Cannabis Related Medicines Studies while the Sativex link leads to a Sativex product monograph

Developing Science-Based Per Se Limits for Driving under the Influence of Cannabis by F Grotenhermen MD et al 2005 Cannabis Driving Report 2005.pdf You Are Going Directly To Jail: DUID Legislation: What It Means, Who's Behind It, and Strategies to Prevent It by Paul Armentano 2005 Medical Cannabis (Marijuana) and Impairment: What are the facts? R Bayer MD 2005 or with endnotes or the original 2005 Oregon House Bill 2693A testimony with footnotes HB 2693a testimony.pdf

“Medical Marijuana and the Supreme Court” by Susan Okie MD New England Journal of Medicine 353;7 August 18, 2005 “Medical Marijuana, American Federalism, and the Supreme Court” by Lawrence O Gostin JD LLD (Hon) Journal of the American Medical Association 294;7 August 17, 2005

“Federal Foolishness and Marijuana” by Jerome Kassirer MD. New England Journal of Medicine: 336 (16) January 30, 1997

“Marihuana as Medicine: A Plea for Reconsideration” by L Grinspoon MD and J Bakalar JD Journal of the American Medical Association 273(23)1995

“Cannabis Vaporizer Combines Efficient Delivery of THC with Effective Suppression of Pyrolytic Compounds” by Dale Gieringer, Joseph St. Laurent, Scott Goodrich Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 4(1) 2004 “NORML-MAPS Study Shows Vaporizers Reduce Toxins in Marijuana Smoke” by D Gieringer PhD and by Tod Mikuriya MD. “Medical Cannabis Update: Smokeless Marijuana” by R Bayer MD 2004 “Dried, Activated, Oil-Free, Cannabis Capsules for Legal Patients” by R Bayer MD 2005

“Short-Term Effects of Cannabinoids in Patients with HIV-1 Infection: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial” by Donald Abrams MD et al Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;139:258 “Marijuana Does Not Appear to Alter Viral Loads of HIV Patients Taking Protease Inhibitors” by Donald Abrams MD. University of California at San Francisco press release July 13, 2000. Alice Trinkl, News Director. Source: Jeff Sheehy (415) 597-8165

“Therapeutic Cannabis (Marijuana) as an Antiemetic and Appetite Stimulant in Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)” by Richard Bayer MD Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 1(3/4) 2001 for nausea in AIDS JCT 2001.pdf

“Cannabis is more than simply D9–tetrahydrocannabinol” by E Russo, J McPartland Psychopharmacology (2003)165:431 “Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater than the Sum of their Parts?” by McPartland & Russo J Cann Ther 1(3/4) 2001 1(3-4)-2001.pdf

“The Role of Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Pain Management” by Ethan Russo MD. Chapter 31 from Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians edited by Richard S Weiner PhD (6th edition American Academy of Pain Management, CRC Press 2002) “Cannabis for Migraine Treatment: The Once and Future Prescription? An Historical and Scientific Review,” by E Russo MD. Pain 76(1) 1998 or 98 Migraine_ Pain.pdf “Marijuana and Analgesia” by Samuel Deadwyler, Jeffrey Vivian, Ian Meng, J. Michael Walker, Donald Simone, and Kenneth Hargreaves. Society for Neuroscience 27th Annual Meeting. New Orleans. Press Conference: Sunday, October 26, 1997 “The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine” by R Noyes, D Brunk, D Avery, and A Canter. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics: volume 18: page 84, 1975. v Codeine for pain CPT 1975.pdf

“Cannabis Treatments in Obstetrics and Gynecology: A Historical Review” by Ethan Russo MD. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 2(3/4) 2002

“Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis” by Ethan Russo, Mary Lynn Mathre, Al Byrne, Robert Velin, Paul Bach, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, and Kristin Kirlin Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 2(1) 2002

Entire Charter Issue Online: Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 1(1) 2001 includes “Marijuana (Cannabis) As Medicine” by Leo Hollister MD and “Effects of Smoked Cannabis and Oral D 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol on Nausea and Emesis After Cancer Chemotherapy: A Review of State Clinical Trials” by Richard Musty and Rita Rossi.

“Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy” by V Vinciguerra, T Moore, E Brennan New York State Med Journal Oct 1988

“Delta-9-THC as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate” by A Chang MD et al Annals of Internal Medicine 91(6) 1979

Websites and Links to many other websites and links:

Patients Out of Time

National Organization to Reform Marijuana Laws (NORML) and Oregon chapter

Drug Policy Alliance (formerly Lindesmith Center and Drug Policy Foundation)

Drug Reform Coordination Network Online Library of Drug Policy

Media Awareness Project


Bibliography by Richard Bayer MD, FACP; Board Certified: American Board of Internal Medicine.